Saturday, March 14, 2020

Biography of Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander

Biography of Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander Born December 10, 1891, Harold Alexander was the third son of Earl of Caledon and Lady Elizabeth Graham Toler. Initially educated at Hawtreys Preparatory School, he entered Harrow in 1904. Departing four years later, Alexander sought to pursue a military career and gained admission to the Royal Military College at Sandhurst. Completing his studies in 1911, he received a commission as a second lieutenant in the Irish Guards that September. Alexander was with the regiment in 1914 when World War I began and deployed to the Continent with Field Marshal Sir John Frenchs British Expeditionary Force. In late August, he took part in the retreat from Mons and in September fought at the First Battle of the Marne. Wounded at the First Battle of Ypres that fall, Alexander was invalided to Britain. World War I Promoted to captain on February 7, 1915, Alexander returned to the Western Front. That fall, he took part in the Battle of Loos where he briefly led the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards as an acting major. For his service in the fighting, Alexander was awarded the Military Cross. The following year, Alexander saw action during the Battle of the Somme. Engaged in heavy combat that September, he received the Distinguished Service Order and the French LÃ ©gion dhonneur. Elevated to the permanent rank of major on August 1, 1917, Alexander was made an acting lieutenant colonel shortly thereafter and led the 2nd Battalion, Irish Guards at the Battle of Passchendaele that fall. Wounded in the fighting, he quickly returned to command his men at the Battle of Cambrai in November. In March 1918, Alexander found himself in command of the 4th Guards Brigade as British troops fell back during the German Spring Offensives. Returning to his battalion in April, he led it at Hazebrouck where it sustained heavy casualties. Interwar Years Shortly thereafter, Alexanders battalion was withdrawn from the front and in October he assumed command of an infantry school. With the end of the war, he received an appointment to the Allied Control Commission in Poland. Given command of a force of German Landeswehr, Alexander aided the Latvians against the Red Army in 1919 and 1920. Returning to Britain later that year, he resumed service with the Irish Guards and in May 1922 received a promotion to lieutenant colonel. The next several years saw Alexander move through postings in Turkey and Britain as well as attend the Staff College. Promoted to colonel in 1928 (backdated to 1926), he took command of the Irish Guards Regimental District before attending the Imperial Defense College two years later. After moving through various staff assignment, Alexander returned to the field in 1934 when he received a temporary promotion to brigadier and assumed command of the Nowshera Brigade in India. In 1935, Alexander was made a Companion of the Order of the Star of India and was mentioned in despatches for his operations against the Pathans in Malakand. A commander who led from the front, he continued to perform well and in March 1937 received an appointment as an aide-de-camp to King George VI. After taking part in the Kings coronation, he briefly returned to India before being promoted to major general that October. The youngest (age 45) to hold the rank in the British Army, he assumed command of the 1st Infantry Division in February 1938. With the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, Alexander prepared his men for combat and soon deployed to France as part of General Lord Gorts British Expeditionary Force. A Rapid Ascent With the rapid defeat of Allied forces during the Battle of France in May 1940, Gort tasked Alexander with overseeing the BEFs rearguard as it withdrew toward Dunkirk. Reaching the port, he played a key role in holding off the Germans while British troops were evacuated. Assigned to lead I Corps during the fighting, Alexander was one of the last to leave French soil. Arriving back in Britain, I Corps assumed a position to defend the Yorkshire coast. Elevated to acting lieutenant general in July, Alexander took over Southern Command as the Battle of Britain raged in the skies above. Confirmed in his rank in December, he remained with Southern Command through 1941. In January 1942, Alexander was knighted and the following month was dispatched to India with the rank of general. Tasked with halting the Japanese invasion of Burma, he spent the first half of the year conducting a fighting withdrawal back to India. To the Mediterranean Returning to Britain, Alexander initially received orders to lead the First Army during the Operation Torch landings in North Africa. This assignment was changed in August when he instead replaced General Claude Auchinleck as Commander-in-Chief, Middle East Command in Cairo. His appointment coincided with Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery taking command of the Eighth Army in Egypt. In his new role, Alexander oversaw Montgomerys victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein that fall. Driving across Egypt and Libya, Eighth Army converged with Anglo-American troops from the Torch landings in early 1943. In a reorganization of Allied forces, Alexander assumed control of all troops in North Africa under the umbrella of the 18th Army Group in February. This new command reported to General Dwight D. Eisenhower who served as Supreme Allied Commander in the Mediterranean at the Allied Forces Headquarters. In this new role, Alexander oversaw the Tunisia Campaign which ended in May 1943 with the surrender of over 230,000 Axis soldiers. With victory in North Africa, Eisenhower began planning the invasion of Sicily. For the operation, Alexander was given command of the 15th Army Group consisting of Montgomerys Eighth Army and Lieutenant General George S. Pattons US Seventh Army. Landing on the night of July 9/10, Allied forces secured the island after five weeks of fighting. With the fall of Sicily, Eisenhower and Alexander rapidly began planning for the invasion of Italy. Dubbed Operation Avalanche, it saw Pattons US Seventh Army headquarters replaced with Lieutenant General Mark Clarks US Fifth Army. Moving forward in September, Montgomerys forces began landing in Calabria on the 3rd while Clarks troops fought their way ashore at Salerno on the 9th. In Italy Consolidating their position ashore, Allied forces commenced advancing up the Peninsula. Due to the Apennine Mountains, which run the length of Italy, Alexanders forces pushed forward on two fronts with Clark in the east and Montgomery in the west. Allied efforts were slowed by poor weather, rough terrain, and a tenacious German defense. Slowly falling back through the fall, the Germans sought to buy time to complete the Winter Line south of Rome. Though the British succeeded in penetrating the line and capturing Ortona in late December, heavy snows prevented them from pushing east along Route 5 to reach Rome. On Clarks front, the advance bogged down in the Liri Valley near the town of Cassino. In early 1944, Eisenhower departed to oversee planning of the invasion of Normandy. Arriving in Britain, Eisenhower initially requested that Alexander serve as the ground forces commander for the operation as he had been easy to work with during earlier campaigns and had promoted cooperation a mong Allied forces. This assignment was blocked by Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, who felt that Alexander was unintelligent. He was supported in this opposition by Prime Minister Winston Churchill who thought the Allied cause to be best served by having Alexander continue to direct operations in Italy. Thwarted, Eisenhower gave the post to Montgomery who had turned Eighth Army over to Lieutenant General Oliver Leese in December 1943. Leading the newly re-named Allied Armies in Italy, Alexander continued to seek a way to break the Winter Line. Checked at Cassino, Alexander, at Churchills suggestion, launched an amphibious landing at Anzio on January 22, 1944. This operation was quickly contained by the Germans and the situation along the Winter Line did not change. On February 15, Alexander controversially ordered the bombing of the historic Monte Cassino abbey which some Allied leaders believe was being used as an observation post by the Germans. Finally breaking through at Cassino in mid-May, Allied forces surged forward and pushed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring and the German Tenth Army back to the Hitler Line. Breaking through the Hitler Line days later, Alexander sought to trap the 10th Army by using forces advancing from the Anzio beachhead. Both assaults proved successful and his plan was coming together when Clark shockingly ordered the Anzio forces to turn northwest for Rome. As a result, the German Tenth Army was able to escape north. Though Rome fell on June 4, Alexander was furious that the opportunity to crush the enemy had been lost. As Allied forces landed in Normandy two days later, the Italian front quickly became of secondary importance. Despite this, Alexander continued pushing up the peninsula during the summer of 1944 and breached the Trasimene Line before capturing Florence. Reaching the Gothic Line, Alexander commenced Operation Olive on August 25. Though both Fifth and Eighth Armies were able to break through, their efforts were soon contained by the Germans. Fighting continued during the fall as Churchill hoped for a breakthrough which would allow for a drive towards Vienna with the goal of halting Soviet advances in Eastern Europe. On December 12, Alexander was promoted to field marshal (backdated to June 4) and elevated to Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces Headquarters with responsibility for all operations in the Mediterranean. He was replaced Clark as leader of the Allied Armies in Italy. In the spring of 1945, Alexander directed Clark as Allied forces launched their final offensives in the theater. By the end of April, Axis forces in Italy had been shattered. Left with little choice, they surrendered to Alexander on April 29. Postwar With the end of the conflict, King George VI elevated Alexander to the peerage, as Viscount Alexander of Tunis, in recognition of his wartime contributions. Though considered for the post of Chief of the Imperial General Staff, Alexander received an invitation from Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King to become Governor-General of Canada. Accepting, he assumed the post on April 12, 1946. Remaining in the position for five years, he proved popular with Canadians who appreciated his military and communication skills. Returning to Britain in 1952, Alexander accepted the post of Minister of Defense under Churchill and was elevated to Earl Alexander of Tunis. Serving for two years, he retired in 1954. Frequently visiting Canada during his retirement, Alexander died on June 16, 1969. Following a funeral at Windsor Castle, he was buried at Ridge, Hertfordshire. Selected Sources History of War: Harold AlexanderWorld War II Database: Harold Alexander

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

The Divine Spark and What It Means to be Human Essay

The Divine Spark and What It Means to be Human - Essay Example Yet, I have to at least try and give an answer. What is "The Divine Spark" The most likely explanation for this, I believe, would be that sudden spark of life. It is that sudden gift of life from the divine creator. In the context of the novel though, I believe that the divine spark is the dawning of a realization for a person. That sudden understanding that whatever it was that he was questioning in the past has, when he least expected it, finally found an answer. The novel posed a serious question before me. After reading the passage in the book where the professor from the University of Virginia discussed his view of a Negro as a man with Chamberlain, I knew that I had a question to ask myself. Chamberlain said: A Negro was not a man Why wasn't he to be considered as such Regardless of race and color, he lived, breathed, and existed in the same space as his landlord. I am of the opinion that this was said because, at the time a Negro was not human because he was unlearned. That was not entirely his fault as it was illegal to teach your slaves to read in some states during that time. There were still some whites during this period that could not read or write yet nobody ever thought that he was less of a man because of his illiteracy. Is being a man based on skin color No. That is shallow and totally unacceptable. To illustrate my point, these days, the Latin Americans living in the USA have taken the place of the Negroes.

Monday, February 10, 2020

Strategies for People Management Case Study Essay

Strategies for People Management Case Study - Essay Example The immediate problem concerns a production worker who was found inebriated (in a drunken state) in the locker room during her Friday night shift. The supervisor was not sure whether she could ask the nurse to request the employee to submit to a test for alcohol but the problem was solved when the employee said that she had taken a coffee flask filled with Vodka into the factory and had, progressively as the night shift wore on, drunk her way through its contents until she was no longer capable of standing. Luckily she had lain down on a bench in the locker room and fallen asleep; where her supervisor had found her. The consequences of the production worker falling whilst on the production-floor were unthinkable. Her supervisor had dealt with the immediate problem proficiently; calling in the duty nurse who made sure the employee was safe and stable in the company infirmary before arranging transport home. The production worker was handed over to her partner as dawn was breaking and a letter was left advising her, the production worker, not to return to work on her normal Monday morning early shift but to report to the Production Manager’s office at 3 p.m. this afternoon. Clearly the production manager wishes you to advise her on how she should handle the immediate situation but there is also a wider concern because you are aware that the company does not have either a strategy or policy on alcohol or similar abuse in the workplace. Your task is to: a. Decide how you will advise the production manager how she would proceed when she meets with the employee this afternoon. b. Prepare a paper which addresses the longer term strategy and policy issues which the case has brought to light. You are shocked when some initial research from a CIPD report on Drugs and Alcohol abuse highlights that: â€Å". . . The bare facts on alcohol consumption and drug use in the UK are

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Carer Term Definition Essay Example for Free

Carer Term Definition Essay By firstly understanding what the term carer means I can look at the challenges both care givers, and care receivers face. According to a government website a â€Å"carer is someone who looks after a friend, relative, or neighbour who needs support because of their sickness, age or disability.† A 2001 census report noted that â€Å"6 million people said that they provide unpaid care to a family member.† This is 12% of the adult population in the United Kingdom. This is a great amount of families providing and receiving care. For a family carer to claim financial help as a carer, the carer must be caring for someone for at least 35 hours a week, be over 16 and not a student. They must also be caring for someone formally recognised as â€Å"disabled† or someone over the age of 65. the carer must also not earn more than  £95 a week. These are the guidelines for application from a government website. Many carers may not no this and may be suffering financially from providing care within families. I will answer the essay title by looking at giving care and receiving care and the challenges both person face. I will also introduce you to the story of Ann, Angus and their family. There are many challenges in been a carer of a family member. But firstly a advantage of been a recognised carer is you can claim to qualify for a carers allowance of  £45.70 per week, also from a government website. The carers equal oppourtunities act 2004, â€Å"it gives carers the right to a assessment of their needs, with regards not just to their caring role but also to their needs for leisure, training and work.† This benefits the care giver in social terms and educationally. There are many difficulties in being a carer. It is demanding and hard work. Both physically and emotionally.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Cyprus :: History

Cyprus A TIME TO REMEMBER Experience cautions us that irreparable damage could be done by those who somehow seem to regard Cyprus as a dazzling intellectual challenge and fail to put human faces behind the issues. Of one thing we can be sure: They will not be around when their ill-conceived paper glory is blown away in the storm that is bound to follow. It has been 35 years since the stationing on the island of a UN peace-keeping force that could prevent neither a secret invasion by Greece nor the continuation of the entire range of faits accomplis created by force over the next 11 years. KORKMAZ HAKTANIR Founding Member of the Cyprus Foundation It was September, still warm in daytime, but a welcome cool descended on the central plain by nightfall. The window panes had cracks in them and there were bullet holes on the walls. The house was on what used to be the northern edge of the Turkish quarter. No one had lived on the second floor since it had come under gunfire from a tall and ugly building down the street occupied by Greek Cypriots. I was the first tenant after many years. When I began, in this way, to live in Northern Cyprus more than twenty years ago, my neighbor was an elderly lady who had not seen the sea for eight years after 1963. In the afternoon, she sat on the porch in the shade of the lemon tree in her garden and watched over her grandchildren. Nalan hanà ½m and her family had survived those traumatic years in caves, in tents and in enclaves into which Turkish Cypriots had been squeezed, leaving behind loved ones, homes and property, and a peaceful life. She always felt living on an island without a glimpse of the Mediterranean around her had been the worst punishment of all. This experience alone seemed to symbolize in her mind the unforgotten fears, abuse, desperation and isolation of those years. She recalled how she had ventured to the northern shore and stared at the sea for the first time after so many years, feeling the cool breeze on her face. The policy of doing away with Turkish Cypriots was by that time being pursued through sever e economic sanctions, this time to squeeze them out of the island. She was then, like the rest of her people, still a hostage in her own homeland.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Providian Trust

(1) What key issues and challenges led to the initiation of the Access Plus project? Please think about the external vs. internal and business vs. technological aspects of the issues and challenges.From an internal point of view, Providian Trust board members felt that the trust’s information system was outdated and therefore the day-to-day activities, which could be done more efficiently with a new software and process, were taking long periods of time and lots of resources. Per example, generating a financial report for a client would take the effort of several trust operators from the front office and back office which is an excess of human resource, and would take about 3 months to generate it.Clients felt they didn’t have to wait so much for a report. These kind of complain were making Providian Trust look bad against their competitors, who took considerably less time doing the same activities. Technological speaking, the Access Plus project has a big challenge. Ac cording to the information provided, the trust officers are very old dated when it comes to PC usage, some of them don’t even use one.One of the biggest division of Providian Trust (Pension & Institutional Trust Services) had the largest amount of full time employees (FTE) yet they were losing money, that’s why another important issue that led to the initiation of this project was the amount of money that was wasted by wrong handling of processes. Since trust officers usually gave late or inaccurate statements, the company was giving around 2 to 5 million $ a year in compensating wages.(2) What organizational changes that the company should have made (but failed to do) before and during the project to ensure the success of the Access Plus project?This project was basically a change initiative project. To have an effective change implementation, a careful evaluation of the problem needs to be made to begin with. I believe the team leader, Michael LeBlanc, understood the problem well but failed to properly select the change initiative team and also failed to create a sense of urgency among the organization regarding  why the change was needed. To have an effective change team, champions and helpers from every step of the organization need to be chosen.Per example, by completely ignoring the 240 IT personnel (even when IT was an essential part of the project, if not the most essential), the change team was missing important members and that made it lack credibility. The employees and trust officers were not convinced from the beginning about why the change was needed, therefore they didn’t believe in it and they didn’t even put in the effort. They also should have done a better selection of the program, focusing more in the company’s needs then in the competitor’s status.(3) What were the strengths and weaknesses of Providian’s approach in managing the project?As far as strengths go, I would only think that havin g the funds ready to make the project is one of them and also having a leader convinced that the change is needed. When it comes down to weaknesses we have lack of communication between change teams. Also, the employees are not convinced about the change and most of them were resisting it until the end. Another weakness is the lack of computer knowledge from the staff and trust officers and also how behind the IT staff was regarding the installation of computers. And lastly, informing employees that some of them will be let go off after the change, created stress in the job and made it harder for the initiative to be effective.(4) How would you evaluate the role (good or bad) that the internal auditor Peter Storey played throughout the project? Do you agree with him, why and why not? (if you were in his role what would you have done differently?)Should he be fired, why and why not?I believe Peter Storey played a good role. His job was to audit the system and give an unbiased opinion . It was his opinion that the proper controls were not in place to implement the change and I also share that view. In his report he states 13 identified risks that were not communicated to Walsh by LeBlanc. I would have sent this report to the CEO as well. I don’t think he should have been fired since he was informing his point of view and seemed  very valid. I believe the CEO made this decision without the proper information, and he also wanted the implementation to happen so he chose to follow the external audit.(5) If you were in charge of the project, what would you do differently? What have been your experience and observations of IS projects in your organization? If you were in charge of a healthcare IS implementation project in your organization, what would be the top three things-issues on your agenda list?I would’ve created a bigger sense of urgency regarding the need for change. It’s a critical aspect for a change initiative to be successful, otherw ise people don’t believe in it and its doom to fail, or work inappropriately. I would have chosen a more qualified steering committee (seeing as they didn’t feel accountable for what they were doing).I have never been part of a IS project, however I think my top three things would be: A. Properly training staff training in IT basic. B. Selection of a well varied change team and a good planned objective, easy to share with the staff. C. Open communication channels between the organizational line, from back staff to change champion. When these kind of changes are being implemented, most of the times the lower level has a better view of the issues that occur than the higher level.

Monday, January 6, 2020

How Business Process Management ( Bpm ) - 1339 Words

1. INTRODUCTION Over the past years, firms have faced unpredicted changes: globalization, political realignment, and rapid advance of information technology. Against this background the concept of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) quickly caught the imaginations of corporate leaders. (Kettinger et al., 2007). The recruitment process in the Public Service - Office of the Prime Minister is indeed a long process and the question is, how Business Process Management (BPM) principles and technologies can be used to shorten the recruitment process within the Office of the Prime Minister? According to (Harmon, 2003) â€Å"Definitions of Business Process Management (BPM) range from IT-focused views to BPM as a holisticManagement practice. The†¦show more content†¦The intention is to blend multiple channels taken during the recruitment process to achieve the intended benefits of the public service and that of the applicant using BPM principles and tools. Fueled by the continuing demand for corporate transformation, there has been a flood of BPR consultants and a proliferation of methodologies, techniques, and tools (MTTs) for conducting business process change projects. Faced with this onslaught, BPR project planners often confused as to which methods are best suited for the project at hand (Ives 1994). This research will seek to detail the current lengthy recruitment process within the Public Service and the impact it has on the Public Service. The report will illustrate the scope, business case, analysis for improving the recruitment process in terms of BPtrends methodology. Collected feedback from applicants, Chief Human Resource officer, Public Service Commission, and Department Human Resource Management-Policy Analysts, Permanent Secretary, Supervisor can help to maintain an effective and efficient recruitment process. This paper is structured as follows. The 1st section will illustrate the current recruitment process OPM and the challenges faced, 2nd section is the definition of the used methodology being used to shorten the current business process, 3rd , 4th and 5th section provide a Process scoping